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外墙保温技术发展历史
华东保温材料 / 2015-12-10

外墙保温技术起源于上世纪40年代的瑞典和德国,至今已有60多年的历史。我国采用外墙保温技术已有多年历史了。到目前为止,国内已有数亿万平方米的工程采用了外墙保温技术,并能够满足节能50%、节能65%设计标准要求或更高节能标准要求。但是,从目前已完工的墙体保温工程质量情况看,无论是墙体外保温材料工程,还是内保温以及夹芯保温工程都存在不同程度的质量问题,如耐久性不强、裂缝、结露霉变、鼓涨脱落等,其中裂缝问题最为突出。
The external wall insulation technology originated in the last century in Sweden and Germany, Sweden and Germany, has 60 years of history. Our country uses the external wall insulation technology for many years history. So far, there are hundreds of millions of square meters of the project using the external insulation technology, and be able to meet such 50%, energy-saving 65% of the design standards or higher energy-saving standards. However, from the current finished wall insulation engineering quality situation, whether internal or external wall thermal insulation engineering, thermal insulation and heat preservation engineering quality problems in different degree, such as durability is not strong, cracks, mildew, condensation bulging off, the crack problem is most prominent.
(一)外墙内保温构造。外墙内保温是将保温隔热系统置于外墙内侧,从而使建筑物结构分处于两个温度场,建筑结构受热应力影响而始终处于不稳定的状态,使结构寿命缩短。在相同气候条件下,做内保温不仅比做外保温甚至比不做保温时外墙与内部结构墙体的温差更大,受外界各种作用力的影响更直接,外墙更易遭受温差应力的破坏,形成裂缝。结构冷(热)桥的存在易造成局部温差过大甚至产生结露现象,受结露水的浸渍或冻融极易造成墙面发霉、开裂。
(a) external wall thermal insulation structure. Exterior wall heat preservation is to put the heat preservation and heat insulation system in the inner wall, so that the building structure is divided into two temperature field, the thermal stress of the building structure is always in an unstable state, so that the structural life is shortened. Under the same climate condition, the internal heat preservation is not only compared with external insulation or even better than the external wall and internal structure wall temperature difference is greater, by the influence of the external force is more direct, external wall is more vulnerable to temperature stress, the formation of cracks. The structure of the cold (hot) bridge is easy to cause local temperature is too large even by dew condensation, dipping or freeze-thaw moldy, extremely easy to cause the wall cracking.
内外混合保温构造。内外混合保温是在施工中,将外保温施工操作方便的部位采用外保温,外保温施工操作不方便的部位采用内保温。从施工操作上看,混合保温可以提高施工速度,对外墙内保温不能保护到的内墙、板同外墙交接处的冷(热)桥部分进行有效的保护,从而使建筑处于保温中。然而,混合保温对建筑结构却存在着严重的损害。
Internal and external mixed insulation structure. Inside and outside the mixed insulation is in the construction, the external insulation construction operation is convenient for the use of external insulation, external insulation construction operation is not convenient to use internal heat preservation. From the point of view of the construction operation, the mixed heat preservation can improve the construction speed, and can protect the inner wall and the outer wall. However, there is a serious damage to the building structure of the mixed insulation.
外墙夹芯保温构造。外墙夹芯保温做法就是将墙体分为承重和保护部分,中间留一定的空隙,内填无机松散或块状保温材料如炉渣、膨胀珍珠岩等,也可不填材料做成空气层。该做法在北方严寒地区有一定比例的应用。此种墙体有一定的保温性能,但其缺点也是非常明显的。
Exterior wall insulation structure. The exterior wall insulation sandwich is divided into the wall and protect the bearing part, leaving a gap, filled with loose or inorganic insulation material block such as slag, expanded perlite, also can not fill material into the air layer. The practice in the northern cold region has a certain percentage of the application. This wall has a certain thermal insulation performance, but its shortcomings are very obvious.
外墙外保温构造。随着近几年外保温技术的快速发展及国家节能标准不断提高,外墙外保温的应用不断扩大,并得到主管部门、专家、开发商及住户的认可。由于外保温体系被置于外墙外侧,直接承受自然界的热应力、水、风、火及地震的影响,因此对外墙外保温系统提出了更高的要求。由于外保温具有的有利于保护主体结构、延长建筑物寿命、改善墙体潮湿情况、增加房屋面积等明显的优势,外保温的应用将不断扩大并将成为主流。但是,外墙外保温构造也存在着保温层脱落、开裂、渗水及墙体饰面涂料的龟裂等质量问题。
Exterior wall insulation structure. Along with the rapid development of heat preservation technology in recent years and the national energy saving standards, the application of external wall thermal insulation is expanded. Because the external thermal insulation system is placed outside the outer wall, directly under the natural thermal stress, water, wind, fire and earthquake, so the external wall insulation system made a higher demand. Due to the external insulation has the advantages of protecting the main structure, extending the life of the building, improving the wall moisture, increasing the housing area, the application of external insulation will continue to expand and will become the mainstream. However, the exterior insulation construction quality problem exists in insulation cracking off, cracking, water seepage and wall decorative coatings etc..
(二)黏结层脱落目前已成为保温工程中常见的质量通病,并且有进一步扩大的势头。在对全国众多脱落现场的勘察及问题分析后,我们不难看出问题的原因所在:黏结面积不足30%;黏结中发生流挂造成局布空黏或虚黏;找平砂浆与主体墙空鼓,特别是长时间渗水,容易发生持续性空鼓和空鼓面积扩大,使保温层连带空鼓或局部破坏;保温板表面荷载过大,极易直接剥离保温层造成脱落;对负风压抵抗措施采用不合理,极易形成某些保温板块被风压破坏而空鼓、脱落。同时,还要注意黏结时间的长短问题。
(two) the bonding layer has become a common quality problem in the heat preservation project, and it has the tendency of further expansion. In many of the problems on-site investigation and analysis off, we is not difficult to see that the cause of the problem: the bonding area is less than 30%; flow caused by air or virtual sticky sticky cloth board adhesion; the mortar and the main wall hollowing, especially long time continuous seepage, prone to hollowing and hollowing expand area the insulation layer or joint hollowing partial damage; insulation board surface load is too large, easy to peel off the insulation layer directly caused by the negative pressure resistance; measures adopted are not reasonable, very easy to form some insulation plate was destroyed and hollowing, shedding pressure. At the same time, but also pay attention to the length of the bond time.
正确的解决办法是,对现场质检人员进行培训,在对保温层结构了解的基础上,要清楚各种材料的特性及现场的检测方法。在施工时对黏结的面积进行控制,对使用的黏结材料不要过多地加水,对现场墙基面进行界面处理时,对正负风压较大地区防护措施采用黏结及铆钉加固共用并尽量提高其黏结面积,对黏结材料的时间上进行试验对比,对厂家的实验室进行实地考核。
The right solution is to carry out the training of on-site inspection personnel, on the basis of understanding the structure of the insulation layer, to clear the characteristics of the various materials and field detection method. The bonding of the area in the construction control, too much water on the adhesive materials do not use the interface on the wall surface, and try to improve the common reinforcement bonding area of positive and negative wind pressure areas of greater protective measures by bonding and bonding material of rivets, time for the experiment, the manufacturers of laboratory site assessment.
(三)墙体饰面层龟裂的原因主要是采用了刚性腻子,腻子柔韧性不够;采用不耐水的腻子,当受到水的浸渍后起泡开裂;采用漆膜坚硬的涂料,涂料断裂伸长率很小;腻子与涂料不匹配;在材料柔性不足的情况下未设保温系统的变形缝。
(three) the causes of wall facing layer cracking mainly adopts rigid putty putty, flexibility is not enough; the waterproof putty, when impregnated by water after bubbling and cracking; the use of paint hard coating, coating elongation is small; and the paint putty does not match the material deformation; without insulation system under the condition of insufficient flexibility the cracks in the wood.
建议采用抗裂外墙腻子。该产品具有良好的抗裂防裂作用,其抗裂基理是由高达5%的纤维抗裂层和高弹性外墙专用弹性乳液组合而成,纤维含量高消化了外保温腻子层中由温度变化大产生的热胀冷缩现象,并分散了来自基层裂缝的各种应力,弹性抗裂的性能把基层的细小变化控制在变形之内,从而有效地杜绝了龟裂的产生。
Recommended exterlorrupture putty. The product has good effect of anti crack crack, the crack is designed by the anti crack fiber layer up to 5% and high elastic exterior wall special elastic emulsion combination, high fiber content digestion insulation putty layer by large temperature changes produced by the phenomenon of thermal expansion and contraction, and dispersed from base crack stress, performance the small change in the elastic crack control in deformation, can effectively prevent the cracks generated.
外墙抗裂腻子具有优秀的防水性能和良好透气性,其三维立体的网状结构可以让空气分子从里向外透出,由于其良好的分子结构可以阻止水份子的进入。减少基层水份子的存在,可有效防止抗裂层水泥砂浆的碱化反应,延长其使用的年限,从而使外保温长期发挥
Anticrackle putty has excellent waterproof performance and good permeability, the three-dimensional mesh structure can make air molecules from from the inside to the outside, due to its good molecular structure can prevent the water. The water molecules are reduced, which can effectively prevent the alkalization of anti cracking layer of cement mortar, prolong the service life, so that the external insulation of long-term play

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