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温哥华大火引发的对墙体保温材料的思考
华东保温商城 / 2014-11-15
我在中国从事建筑节能的工作,所以到北美旅游探亲的机会,也最关注北美地区的建筑节能的做法,也喜欢对比中国与北美地区建筑节能在各方面的差异。这个国庆节假期,在温哥华遇上了Granville 与49街交汇处一幢新建的公寓着火。尽管有近十部消防车在救火,大火还是无情的烧了三个多小时,把一幢只有四层高的公寓烧了个面目全非,Granville交通瘫痪长达6个小时之久,尽管没有人员伤亡的报道,这场大火还是给整个大温地区带来了很大的震撼与损失。
I engaged in building energy conservation work in China, so the opportunity to travel to North America to visit, and also the most attention to the practice of building energy efficiency in North America, also like the contrast between China and North America building energy efficiency in all aspects of the differences. The National Day holiday, met with 49 Granville street interchange in vancouver a new apartment is on fire. Despite the nearly 10 fire truck in the fire, the fire or ruthless for more than three hours, a only four floors of the apartment house burned beyond recognition, Granville for six hours in traffic paralysis, though no casualties were reported, the fire or to the big temperature region has brought great shock and loss.
如同我国上海胶州路的教师公寓大火是因保温材料燃烧所致,温哥华的这场大火也是因建筑节能引起的。于是,做为建筑节能的从业人员,我更加认真的研究了北美地区的建筑节能的优劣势,希望我的专业技能能够帮助到北美地区的建筑节能的安全改进问题。
As China's Shanghai jiaozhou road teachers apartment fire is caused by a heat preservation material burning, vancouver is the fire caused by building energy efficiency. So as building energy conservation professionals, I more serious research in North America the advantages and disadvantages of building energy efficiency, I hope that my professional skills to help in North America, the safety of the building energy efficiency improvement.
一、 北美地区的建筑节能主要形式
The main form, building energy conservation in North America
北美地区的民居住房,以独立屋居多,这种独立屋地上部分均采用全木结构,只有地下室用混凝土浇筑。在大的木料做好受力支撑的情况下,再用木板钉在大龙骨的两侧,中间填充岩棉或矿棉,独立屋的外墙就做好了,内隔墙基本构造与外墙差不多。只是把室内的配电管线等覆没在里面,所以他们的填充保温材料密实度不够,且隔音性差,防雨、防水的任务也更加的重要而细致。
Residential housing in North America, in the majority with independent house, this kind of independent house part adopts full wood on the ground, only with concrete pouring in the basement. In the case of large wood to do mechanical support, with a board on the both sides of the keel, rock wool filled with middle or mineral wool, the outer walls of the house is done independently, basic structure and internal partition wall. Just wiped out such as indoor power distribution line in it, so they don't have enough filling heat preservation material compaction, and poor sound insulation, waterproof, waterproof task is more important and detailed.
而多层及高层住宅定会是未来的发展方向,有明显增多的趋势。北美高层住宅及公建采用钢筋混凝土框架构造,外面加龙骨,中间填充部分,同独立屋的构造差不多,也同样为木质的面板,中间填充岩棉或玻璃棉的构造形式。这种构造的优点是就地取材(北美地区木材产量很高),木材对人体的居住舒适度高。缺点除上述外,就是防火阻燃性太差,且因大量使用龙骨,使建筑造价过高。可见,Granville这场大火,就是这种建筑构造惹的祸,木板墙体燃烧,导致了连锁的反应。防水、防火的世界性问题也同样困扰着北美的人民。
The multi-storey and high-rise housing will be the future development direction, have obvious increasing trend. North American high-rise residential and public use of reinforced concrete frame structure, keel, outside part, filled with middle with independent structure is the same as the house, also for the wooden panel, rock wool and glass cotton filled with middle tectonic form. This structure has the advantage of local materials (north American lumber yield high), high wood the living comfort of human body. Faults in addition to the above, it is bad fire flame retardancy, and due to the extensive use of keel, the construction cost is too high. Visible, Granville, the fire is the building structure, board wall combustion, led to a chain reaction. Waterproof, fire prevention of the worldwide problems also plagued the people of North America.
中国过去十几年的建筑节能推进速度非常快,房屋开发量非常大,我们因为建筑节能发生的火灾更是数不胜数,造成的损失无法准确计算,为之失去的生命更是让人痛心疾首,痛定思痛,政府主管部门在安全节能方面开会研究对策并提高标准监管要求,我们的从业人员,更是围绕着不起火,少损失,安全第一做工作,想主意。
China in the past more than ten years of building energy efficiency to promote fast, housing construction is very large, we are the fire that happened because of building energy efficiency is, cannot be accurately calculate losses, for loss of life is to let people saddened, painful experience, the government department in charge of meetings to study countermeasures in terms of safety and energy saving and raising standards, regulatory requirements, our professionals, especially around the fire, less damage, safety first work, want to idea.
我们作为中国最早进入建筑节能领域的公司,在安全节能这方面更是投入了大量的人力物力,从不同角度、领域做了大量的研发工作,目的就是为了改进了中国原有聚苯板薄抹灰保温系统易燃的缺陷。最终,我们公司于2008年发明了复合板现浇混凝土系统。这一新系统的出现,让有机保温材料既保持了优异的保温效果,又达到A级不燃的防火效果,保温层的寿命及渗水开裂等质量通病彻底根除了,这个系统的明显优势让它马上在中国大面积的推广开来。
We, as the first company to enter the building energy conservation areas in China, especially when it comes to safety and energy saving invested a lot of manpower material resources, from different angles and fields have done a lot of research and development work, the purpose is to improve the heat preservation system of Chinese original polystyrene board thin plastering the defects of flammable. Finally, in 2008, our company invented the YL cast-in-site concrete composite board system. The emergence of the new system, keep the organic heat preservation material is the excellent heat preservation effect, and achieve a-class non-combustible fire prevention effect, thermal insulation layer and the life of A permeable crack quality common fault completely eradicated, the obvious advantage to the system to make it immediately widespread popularized in China.
我把这一系统的主要构造描述如下:
I described the main structure of this system are as follows:
工艺一:硅酸钙板(水泥压力板)做为双面的保护层,中间复合岩棉板(岩棉板的厚度有设计机构计算提供,硅酸钙板的厚度不低于6mm;用耐久性,环保要求高的环氧树脂胶粘剂将硅酸钙板与岩棉板粘和在一起,岩棉板可选用竖丝排布,以免变形)。
Process a: calcium silicate board (as a double protective layer of cement pressure plate), intermediate composite rock wool board, rock wool board thickness of calculation provide design institution, the thickness of the calcium silicate board not less than 6 mm; use durability, environmental requirements of epoxy resin adhesive with high calcium silicate board and rock wool board glued together, and rock wool board can choose vertical wire arrangement, so as to avoid deformation).
工艺二:硅酸钙板(水泥压力板)做为双面的保护层,中间复合石墨EPS板(或石墨XPS板、PU板),粘合工艺同工艺一。对保温芯材的燃烧性能要求为不低于B1级。
Process 2: calcium silicate board (as a double protective layer of cement pressure plate), intermediate compound graphite EPS (or graphite XPS board, PU board), bonding process with a process. Preserved WenXin wood combustion performance requirements for not less than B1 level.
这两种构造的优点是:①复合材料在工厂一次性生产完成,提高了施工现场的生产速度,节省了人力的使用。②由于使用了无机面层的材质,杜绝减少了火灾的发生。③无机面板代替木板的使用,使墙体的防火防潮防水压力大大减轻。④保温材料与无机面层接合严密,无缝隙,提高了隔音保温的效果,使建筑更隔音节能,居住舒适度明显提高。⑤保温材料的厚度可见,可测,可控,节能指标有保障。⑥保温层的寿命与建筑物相同。
The advantages of these two kinds of structure are: (1) composite materials in factory production is completed, one-time increase the production rate of the construction site, save the use of human. (2) with the use of inorganic surface of the material, put an end to reduce the occurrence of fire. (3) inorganic panel to replace the use of wood, greatly reduce the wall of the fire protection moistureproof waterproof pressure. (4) insulation materials and inorganic surface bonding tightly, no cracks, improve the sound insulation heat preservation effect, make the building more energy-saving, sound insulation obviously improve the living comfort. 5. The thickness of the insulation material visible and measurable, controllable and the energy saving index has safeguard. 6. The life of the insulation layer in the same buildings.
建议北美地区的使用方法:
The use of the suggested North America:
方案一:(高层公寓,Apartment)框架部位YL无机复合保温板与现浇混凝土同时使用,用复合保温板代替模板,与混凝土浇筑在一起;填充墙体部位固定龙骨后,再行使用敷设单面硅酸钙板,中间填充岩棉,即填充墙体部位仅将现施工工艺中的木板变更为硅酸钙板。
One way: (high-rise Apartment buildings, Apartment) YL inorganic composite insulation board of parts of the framework and cast-in-situ concrete used at the same time, using composite insulation board instead of the template, with concrete pouring; Fill the wall body parts after a fixed keel, using any single calcium silicate board, laying the middle filling rock wool, that fill the wall body parts will only now in the process of construction of board change to calcium silicate board.
优势:防火性能提升,减少了框架部位的龙骨使用,节能效果提升明显,防火效果优异。
Advantage: fireproof performance, reduce the keel frame parts use, energy saving effect obvious ascension, fire prevention effect is excellent.
方案二:框架部位现浇使用,代替模板,填充墙体部位用龙骨仅做窗框,其它部位采用YL复合保温板填充。
Scheme 2: use cast-in-situ frame parts, instead of a template, and fill the wall body parts made from keel only window frame, other parts using YL composite insulation board.
上述二个方案只是我的一些基本想法,具体的节点做法及龙骨配置可做调整使用,防水层也可灵活增加或改动。耐碱玻纤网也可用热镀锌钢丝网代替。
The above two solutions is just some of my basic idea, the specific practice and keel configuration can be used to do adjustment, flexible waterproof layer can also add or change. Alkali resistant fiberglass mesh can also be used instead of hot dip galvanized steel wire net.

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