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外墙保温材料起火原因分析
华东保温商城 / 2014-10-15
外墙保温材料起火原因分析
 the cause analysis of exterior wall thermal insulation material
一是行业标准不健全,产品质量参差不齐。当前,外保温材料的生产和使用环节乱象丛生,建筑领域目前采用的有机保温材料主要包括聚苯板(EPS)、挤塑板(XPS)和聚氨酯(PU)三种,其最大的优点是质轻、保温、隔热性好。最大的缺陷是防火安全性差,易老化、易燃烧。前两者因价格低廉而被广泛应用,后者在导热系数、施工性能及燃烧性能等方面略胜一筹。外墙保温材料的行业标准尚不健全,个别生产厂家在管理上存在漏洞,生产的外保温材料根本达不到建筑消防设计要求,耐火等级和耐火极限也达不到国家的规范标准,产品推向市场后,为建筑火灾事故埋下先天性安全隐患。
One is the industry standard, product quality is uneven. At present, the link of the production and use of external thermal insulation material, a mess currently adopted in the construction field of organic heat preservation material mainly includes polystyrene board (EPS) and extruded plate (XPS) and polyurethane (PU) three, its biggest advantage is light weight, good thermal insulating, stays. The biggest defect is the difference in fire safety, easy to aging, easy to burn. Is widely used due to the low price of the two, the latter in the coefficient of thermal conductivity, construction performance and combustion performance and etc. Outer wall heat preservation material industry standard is not yet perfect, individual manufacturers in the loopholes in management, production of thermal insulation material is short of building fire protection design requirements, fire rating and fireproof limit also can not meet the national standards, product to market, for the building fire accident buried congenital safe hidden trouble.
二是建筑施工周期长,作业现场隐患丛生。对于建筑行业来说,节能保温是国策,墙体保温更是实现建筑节能的重要手段,所以建筑保温材料的应用非常广泛。现实中,高层建筑、大型体育场馆等建筑的建设工期一般为两到三年,各种施工工序相互交叉,管理不便。个别管理人员忽视现场火灾隐患的排查整治和消防临时用水的设置,将全部精力放在追赶工期和压缩成本上。在长达两到三年的漫长工期内,作业现场可燃材料多,导致火灾隐患不易被及时发现。而外墙保温材料具有蔓延速度极快、隐匿燃烧、一旦起火就很难控制等特点,极易因现场人员麻痹大意而造成重大人员和财产损失。
Second, long construction period, work safety hidden trouble. For the construction industry, energy-saving insulation is national policy, the wall heat preservation but also realize the important means of building energy efficiency, so the building insulation materials has a very wide range of applications. In reality, high-rise buildings, the construction of the large sports venues and other construction time limit for a project, generally for two to three years, cross each other all sorts of construction process, management of inconvenience. Individual managers ignore the screen control of fire hazard and fire control set of temporary water, put all his energy on pursuing the construction period and the compression cost. In two to three years of long duration, job site combustible materials, lead to fire hazard is not easy to be found in a timely manner. And exterior wall thermal insulation material has spread extremely fast, concealing characteristics of combustion, once the fire is difficult to control, easy for field personnel paralysis caused significant personnel and property losses.
三是合格材料成本高,施工单位以次充好。中国建筑科学研究院建筑防火研究所研究员季广其曾在央视一档《建筑保温材料易燃引堪忧》的节目中说:“实际上现在看到很多的保温材料,不管是聚苯,还是硬泡绝缘纸都是不达标的,也就是B3极的,都属于易燃材料。基本沾火就着,很容易引发火灾。以挤塑板为例,符合防火标准的比易燃的挤塑板价格要贵一倍以上。”目前的保温材料分为(不燃)、B1(难燃)、B2(可燃)、B3(易燃)四个等级,共有无机保温材料和有机保温材料两类,前者特性是不燃,但保温效果差,只有20%左右的市场份额,后者特性是保温效果好,但易燃烧,占据80%的市场,为此,就需要在材料中添加一定量的阻燃剂使其达标,而阻燃剂价格昂贵,很多商家为了追求利润最大化,就少加阻燃剂,有的甚至不加。个别施工单位故意购买劣质保温材料,以次充好、节约成本,加上消防监督不到位,就很容易蒙混过关。
Three is qualified material cost is high, the construction unit shoddy. China construction science research institute researcher at the institute of building fire season wide its in CCTV programme of building insulation materials flammable lead is said: "in fact, now see a lot of heat preservation material, whether in polystyrene, or hard foam insulation paper is not up to standard, namely B3 extremely, belong to flammable materials. Basic on fire, and it is easy to cause fire. Extruded board, for example, up to the standard of fire than flammable extruded plate prices more than double to you." The thermal insulation material is divided into (non-combustible), B1, B2 (flame retardant) (flammable), B3 (inflammable) four levels, there are two types of organic and inorganic heat preservation material thermal insulation material, the former feature is non-combustible, but poor thermal insulation effect, only about 20% of the market share, the latter characteristic is heat preservation effect is good, but easy to burn, occupying 80% of the market, therefore, requires a certain amount of flame retardant is added in the material make its mark, and flame retardants are expensive, many businesses in pursuit of profit maximization, flame retardant, less or not. Individual construction units deliberately buy inferior insulation materials, shoddy, cost savings, and fire supervision does not reach the designated position, it is easy to muddle through.
 

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